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Encyclopedia of Marine Technology


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Petroleum products

Petroleum oils are characterised as either black or white (clean). Black oils include crude oil, furnace oil, fuel oil, tar and asphalt. White oils include benzene, kerosene, and gasoline.

Physically drying paints

Paints that dry solely by evaporation of solvent. The binder is unreactive.


The PICKUPCAT concept is based on dividing a vessel into two separate parts: a self-contained catamaran containing power, propulsion and steering functions and an interchangeable cargo-carrying unit.


The structure perpendicular to the shoreline to which a vessel is secured for the purpose of cargo loading and unloading.

Piggy-back cover

Hatch cover arrangement where a wheeled panel carriers another panel on its top during travel on the coaming.

Pigments (painting)

Powders, insoluble in resins, which give the paints their colour, finish, and protective properties.


A hollow steel pipe installed into the sea bed by means of a piling hammer or vibrator and used as anchoring point.


Vertical member or column giving support to a deck girder, flat or similar structure: also called stanchion.


A person who is qualified to assist the master in navigation while entering or leaving a port.

Pilot boat, pilot launch, pilot tender, pilot cutter

Usually small, fast and highly manoeuvrable craft used to deliver pilots from a harbour to vessels.

Pilot ladder

A rope ladder provided for a pilot to embark and disembark safely. The pilot ladders shall be located in a place clear from any possible ship discharges.

Pilot mechanical hoist

A pilot boarding hoist raised by a power winch. The mechanical pilot hoist should be designed to operate as a moving ladder, or as a platform, to lift and lower one person on the side of the ship.

Pilot shelter platforms

Covered stands required by Regulations on Navigation in Panama Canal Waters onboard vessels with a breadth of 30.48m, and overall length of 274.4m or more.


The activity carried out by a pilot assisting the master of a ship in navigation while entering or leaving a port.


Tiny holes through the entire paint film down to the substrate formed during application and drying.

Pinpoint rusting

Local rusting at pinholes or holidays.


The pins or bolts that hinge the rudder to the gudgeons on the sternpost or rudderpost.

Pipe fittings

Components such as sleeves, elbows, tees, bends, flanges, etc., which are used to join pipe sections.

Pipe joints

Butt-welded joints, socket-welded joints, slip-on welded sleeve joints, flanged joints, threaded joints, expansion joints.

Pipe schedules

Pipe schedules are designations of pipe wall thicknesses as given in American National Standard Institute, ANSI B36.10.

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