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Encyclopedia of Marine Technology


180 results

Pad gas

Gas added to the vapour space of the vessel or tank to prevent the forming of an explosive or ignitable vapour-air mixture.


Charging of the gas pad, usually nitrogen, above the liquid cargo to prevent the cargo coming in contact with air.


A liquid material applied or spread over a solid surface on which it subsequently dries or hardens to form a continuous, adherent, obliterating film.

Paint cracking

Deep cracks in paint that expose substrate.

Paint system

The complete number and type of coats applied in the painting job.


A wooden or steel flat tray for stocking goods in boxes, cartons or bags, can be stacked. Its function is to facilitate the movement the goods, mainly by use of forklift trucks.

Pallet swinger

A crane designed for handling pallets on refrigerated cargo vessels and others where cargo is carried in pallets.

Panama Canal

The Panama Canal is approximately 80 kilometers long and connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

Panama Canal SOPEP

A special SOPEP manual requested by the Panama Canal Authorities.


One unit of a set of hatch cover closures.


The pulsation in and out of the bow and stern plating when a ship alternately rises and plunges deep into water.

Paper carrier, newsprint carrier

A special cargo vessel designed to transport paper cargo. Paper carriers are often equipped with side loading system.

Parallel mid-body

The ship length for which the midship section is constant in area and shape.

Parallel Side Loader

An innovative gantry-type shipboard crane developed by Wijnne & Barends for the handling of forest products and containers.

Parametric roll prevention system (IPRP)

The anti-heeling system developed by the German company Intering™ to prevent the build-up of parametric rolling in head or following seas.

Parametric roll resonance

A ship in longitudinal seas experiences a completely different shape of the underwater volume as compared with the ship in calm water and in beam seas.

Parametric rolling

The stability moment of a ship is the product of the righting lever and the total weight. In head or following seas, the righting lever varies periodically due to the changing wave elevation around the ship and her pitch motion.


Device used to achieve lateral separation for In-Sea Equipment towed from a seismic vessel.

Partially weatertight hatch covers

Hatch covers without sealing between comings and panels and with non-weatertight gaps between panels.

Particulates, particle matter (PM) emissions

A complex mixture of inorganic and organic substances comprising mainly soot (elemental carbon), nitrates, carbonates and a variety of non, or partially, combusted hydrocarbon components of the fuel and lubricating oil.

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