Financial assets are classified into the following categories: financial assets at fair value through the statement of income, investments held to maturity, loans and receivables, and available-for-sale financial assets. Financial assets are classified on the basis of their purpose of use upon initial recognition.
At the end of the financial period, the Group assesses whether objective indication exists of impairment of an individual financial asset other than those measured at fair value through the statement of income. There is impairment in a financial asset if objective indication exists thereof and if it has an effect on expected future cash flows from the financial asset that can be reliably evaluated. A significant decline in a counterparty’s result, a debtor’s breach of contract, and for equity instruments, a significant or persistent decline in value below its cost, for example, can be considered as objective indication of impairment.
Financial assets at fair value through the statement of income
The financial assets at fair value through the statement of income category includes derivatives that do not qualify for hedge accounting and are not financial guarantee agreements, as well as other financial assets recognised at fair value through the statement of income, which are financial assets held for trading.
Derivatives are initially recognised at cost in the statement of financial position and are thereafter measured at their fair value at the end of each financial period. Realised and unrealised gains and losses from changes in fair values are recognised in the statement of income in the period in which they have arisen. Derivatives held for trading, as well as financial assets maturing within 12 months after the end of the financial period, are included in current assets.
Investments held to maturity
Investments held to maturity are financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that mature on a fixed date and which the Group has the positive intention and ability to hold until maturity. They are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method, less any impairment losses.
Loans and receivables
Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets that have fixed or determinable payments and that are not quoted on active markets. They arise when the Group provides a loan or delivers products and services directly to a debtor. Loans and receivables are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. They are included in non-current receivables, unless they have a maturity of less than 12 months from the reporting date. Such items are classified as current receivables.
Trade receivables are recognised at their anticipated realisable value, which is the original invoiced amount less an estimated valuation allowance for impairment. Trade receivables are measured individually. Credit losses are expensed immediately when indication exists that the Group is not able to collect its trade receivables according to initial agreements. Examples of events giving rise to impairment include a debtor’s serious financial problems, a debtor’s probable bankruptcy or other financial arrangement. The Group may sell undivided interests in trade receivables on an ongoing and one-time basis to other lending institutions.
Financial assets sold under these arrangements are excluded from trade receivables in the Group’s consolidated statement of financial position at the time of payment from the acquirer, considering that substantially all risks and rewards have been transferred. If the acquirer has not settled the payment to the extent that the ownership, risk and control over the receivable have been substantially transferred then such financial assets sold are re-recognised in the consolidated statement of financial position at the end of the financial period.
Available-for-sale financial assets
Available-for-sale financial assets are non-derivative financial assets allocated to this category. They are included in non-current assets unless the Group intends to dispose of the investment within 12 months from the reporting date.
Wärtsilä’s investments in other companies are classified as available-for-sale financial assets, including investments in listed and unlisted shares. Listed shares are measured at fair value, based on their market value. Unlisted shares for which the fair value cannot be reliably measured are valued at cost less impairment.
Changes in the fair value of shares measured at fair value are recognised in other comprehensive income and reported in fair value reserve in equity with the tax impact, until the shares are disposed of or written down, at which point the accumulated fair value changes are released from equity to the statement of income.
Gains and losses on disposal and impairments of shares that are attributable to operating activities are included in operating income, while gains and losses on disposal and impairments of other shares are included in financial income and expenses.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash comprises cash in hand, deposits held at call with banks and similar investments. Cash equivalents comprise short-term, highly liquid investments that are subject to only minor fluctuations in value. Cash equivalents have a maturity of up to three months on the date of acquisition. Credit accounts related to the Group's cash pool accounts are included in current financial liabilities.
The Group’s financial liabilities are classified either into financial liabilities recognised at amortised cost or financial liabilities recognised at fair value through the statement of income. Financial liabilities are classified as current unless the Group has the unconditional right to defer the payment of the debt to at least 12 months from the end of the financial period. Financial liabilities (or parts thereof) are only derecognised once the debt has extinguished, i.e. once the contractually specified obligation is discharged, cancelled or expires.
Financial liabilities recognised at amortised cost
The loans raised by the Group are included in financial liabilities recognised at amortised cost. They are measured at their initial recognition at fair value using the effective interest rate method. After the initial recognition, loans are measured at amortised cost. Interests on loans are expensed through the statement of income over the maturity of the debt using the effective interest rate method.
Financial liabilities recognised at fair value through the statement of income
In the Wärtsilä Group, financial liabilities recognised at fair value through the statement of income include derivatives that are not eligible for hedge accounting. Realised and unrealised gains and losses from changes in fair values of derivatives are recognised in the statement of income in the period in which they have arisen.
Derivatives and hedge accounting
Derivatives are measured at fair value. Gains and losses from fair value measurement are treated as determined by the purpose of the derivatives. The effects on results of changes in the value of derivatives that are eligible for hedge accounting and that are effective hedging instruments are presented consistently with the hedged item. Impact from ineffective hedging instruments is recognised in financial income and expenses.
For derivatives eligible for hedge accounting, the Group documents the relationship between each hedging instrument and the hedged asset upon entering into a hedging arrangement, along with the risk management objective and the strategy applied. Through this process, the hedging instrument is linked to the relevant assets and liabilities, projected business transactions or binding contracts. The Group also documents its ongoing assessment of the effectiveness of the hedge regarding the relationship between a change in the derivative’s fair value and a change in the value of the hedged cash flows or transactions.
Hedging of sales and purchases
Wärtsilä hedges its sales and purchases in foreign currencies with foreign exchange derivatives or currency options. Certain foreign exchange derivatives are eligible for hedge accounting. Changes in the fair value of derivative contracts designated to hedge future cash flows are recognised in other comprehensive income and presented in the fair value reserve in equity, provided that the hedging is effective. The ineffective portion is immediately recognised in the statement of income in the financial period. Changes in fair value due to interest rate differences are recognised in the statement of income. Any gain or loss in the fair value reserve accumulated through other comprehensive income is reported as an adjustment to net sales or material and services in the same period as any transactions relating to the hedged obligations or estimates. Currency forwards are measured at forward rates at the end of the financial period and currency options at their market value at the end of the financial period.
Hedges of net investments in foreign operations (equity hedging)
Wärtsilä decided to discontinue hedging the net investments in its foreign subsidiaries and joint ventures in June 2012. Prior to that, the changes in the fair values of instruments determined as equity hedging were recognised in other comprehensive income.
Derivatives not included in hedge accounting
For derivatives not included in hedge accounting, changes in fair value are immediately recognised in financial income or expenses in the statement of income. For example, interest rate swap hedges belong to this group. The fair value of interest rate swaps is calculated by discounting the future cash flows.
Fair value hierarchy
Financial instruments measured at fair value are classified according to the following fair value hierarchy: instruments measured using quoted prices in active markets (level 1), instruments measured using inputs other than quoted prices included in level 1 observable either directly or indirectly (level 2), and instruments measured using inputs that are not based on observable market data (level 3). Financial instruments measured at fair value include financial assets and liabilities at fair value through the statement of income and available-for-sale financial assets.