While there are several different options for achieving 100% decarbonised electricity generation for the island, it is clear that just relying on RES (wind and solar PV) and energy storage is not feasible. Instead, investing in a certain amount of RES and switching to biofuel or utilising Power-to-Fuel technology are better paths for the island to go green with an optimal system cost.
By utilising biofuels, the island can already be carbon neutral in 2025, with a 200 million euro cost saving compared to the business-as-usual scenario. Utilising Power-to-Fuel technology would offer an even lower total cost with a saving of 250 million euro compared to business-as-usual. Both decarbonisation scenarios examined also lead to a reduction of 1.8 million tonnes of CO2 over the 2020-2030 period.