Operational risk management is part of the daily work of the Businesses. Opportunities and risks are identified, assessed, and managed on a daily basis and reported to, and managed by, the appropriate management level. The status of these opportunities and threats are reviewed on a periodic basis and appropriate further actions are taken.
Wärtsilä constantly analyses its manufacturing footprint and capacity costs, including costs related to the supply chain. Risk assessments have been made for all the main delivery centres, and significant safety and risk mitigation investments have been completed. Risk identification, assessment and mitigation actions are executed on a regular basis as part of operational management. Management systems for quality, environmental, occupational health and safety, and other systems are utilised to improve productivity, while safety and business continuity plans have been implemented for the key delivery centres.
Supplier and sub-contractor risk
Wärtsilä’s supply management is integrated within the business lines. The aim is to work in partnership with the supplier base to create value for Wärtsilä’s customers by ensuring quality, on-time delivery and the lowest total cost. In order to ensure coordinated interfaces and synergies for the cross-divisional supplier base, a category management structure has been in place since 2007. Indirect Purchasing remains a centralised function responsible for managing strategic sourcing activities for indirect materials and services in all businesses and support functions.
The supply management units have a unified process for managing and controlling Wärtsilä’s supplier network, and for verifying that the suppliers’ performance meets Wärtsilä’s expectations. Supplier performance is, therefore, continuously measured. A key activity in managing business continuity planning is the regular assessment of business interruption risks, which is carried out in cooperation with the company’s suppliers. Several supplier risk audits have been completed jointly with the insurer as one means of mitigating risk. These audits are now one of the regular tasks for the supply category managers and the Risk Management function.
Wärtsilä has developed its supply related activities by creating close collaboration and long-term relationships with its main suppliers. This cooperation creates a common view towards values and goals, which in turn supports the management of Wärtsilä’s strategic risks. To further mitigate supplier and sub-contractor risks, a comprehensive follow-up of suppliers’ credit worthiness has been established. Supplier related risks for key components are mitigated by establishing dual- or multi-sourcing.
Lifecycle quality of products and product liability risk
The launching of new products always involves risks. In the R&D process, several risk management techniques are applied, including the risk elimination tool FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) and in-house validation testing. Wärtsilä seeks to control quality risks by monitoring the incoming quality of the supply chain, and by designing and manufacturing its products with all due care. Wärtsilä applies a GATE model in order to control the product development process. Initially, only a limited release of new products is allowed, and via the gate approach, full release authority is given to the sales organisations only after testing and further validation has been completed.
As part of the on-going digital transformation, a so-called Agile way of working is being adopted in the Digital organisation, which allows Wärtsilä to test new ideas and business models quickly in order to promptly adapt to changing market needs. This approach is used for conceptualisation to avoid the risk of losing business opportunities, while products continue to go through the established GATE development. Thereby, the two models complement each other and are used in different context within the organisation.
Wärtsilä seeks to control its manufacturing quality risks by applying several assurance and quality control principles. The level of quality assurance and control requirements are determined based on component criticality, and they are applied throughout the delivery chain. The 5S (sort, shine, set, standardise, and sustain) philosophy is implemented at all production sites to increase quality levels, and to support lean operations.
Both Services and the business lines are responsible for supporting customers in all warranty issues. This offers a feedback loop from the field to production and R&D, while taking care of customers’ installations throughout their lifecycle. The company makes warranty provisions to cover any costs that may arise after product delivery. The company’s product liability insurance covers unexpected damages.
Wärtsilä seeks to continuously improve the quality of its products and services through the adoption of best industry practices and good governance. Management at all levels is responsible for the quality of output from their organisations, and is accountable for ensuring that appropriate review and feedback mechanisms are in place. The centralised Wärtsilä Quality function is responsible for coordinating quality activities across the businesses, and for ensuring that senior governance mechanisms are in place and effective.
Wärtsilä’s non-service sales include projects and equipment supply deliveries of various sizes. The most substantial orders concern turnkey power plants. However, in relation to the total volume of business, the risks from individual projects do not reach significant levels. The lifecycle quality of the products and work, starting from the initial design, throughout all stages of the production process, to the eventual field service work, plus the use of standard sales contracts, including the establishment of a contract review process, together reduce the risk of product liability claims.
In the Services business, the contractual risk is related mainly to long-term agreements and service projects, such as engine upgrades, retrofits or modifications. These offerings represent approximately 25% of the total Services business, but the risks connected to individual contracts do not reach significant levels since the business between the various customers and countries is broadly spread. In addition, both offerings follow a well-defined sales process, thereby bringing multiple control points to observe embedded risks and to plan their control, both in contractual measures as well as in execution.
Risk of non-compliance, corruption and fraud
Wärtsilä complies with the law and its own internal policies and procedures everywhere the company does business. Wärtsilä's Code of Conduct is the key guideline for all employees globally. Wärtsilä is committed to high ethical standards and integrity in its Businesses, and to preventing corruption and violations of the principles set forth in the Code of Conduct, as well as in Wärtsilä's Anti-Corruption and Compliance Reporting policies. Compliance processes are embedded in all of the Businesses, and the responsibility for compliance and awareness of ethics and integrity is that of all Wärtsilä employees. Wärtsilä is fully committed to compliance with the anti-corruption laws and statutes. Wärtsilä's Anti-Corruption Policy absolutely forbids any kind of corruption and bribery, and the top management of the company has a zero-tolerance policy regarding corruption and fraud.
The Compliance function promotes Group wide compliance and continuously strives to raise awareness of the risk of corruption and bribery and other misconduct. It is primarily responsible for creating and enforcing Group level policies and procedures, training programmes, internal compliance investigations, managing the consequences of misconduct, and reporting. The continuous development of Wärtsilä's compliance programme and nurturing the company’s commendable ethical culture are pivotal tasks for the Compliance function. Moreover, Compliance supports and cooperates with the Businesses and other corporate functions in their risk management efforts. Wärtsilä has a Group-wide programme for strengthening its Code of Conduct which aims to increase employees’ understanding on how the Code of Conduct impacts the everyday work at all Wärtsilä locations wherever Wärtsilä operates.
While Wärtsilä is aware of the risk of being subject to fraud by external business parties, and that the risk of corruption and fraud is heightened in many markets where the company operates, Wärtsilä maintains its highly ethical practices at all times. Full compliance with its stringent anti-corruption regime, including policies to prevent the corruption and bribery risk of third parties, is demanded by Wärtsilä.
Cyber & information security related risks
Wärtsilä has an internal organisation dedicated to cyber security governance and management. This organisation, in cooperation with Wärtsilä’s divisional business management, is responsible for Wärtsilä’s cyber security governance and management in connection with its customer offerings and internal operations. The Wärtsilä cyber security governance model ties together traditional safety and security functions with cyber security operations.
Information security risks related to Wärtsilä’s internal operations are continuously identified and evaluated. The mitigation activities are executed in Wärtsilä networks, endpoints and services. The Wärtsilä Security Operations Centre monitors the internal threat exposure level and provides a coordinated response to identified information security incidents.
At Wärtsilä the businesses are responsible for monitoring the regulatory developments in the maritime and energy production sectors, thus securing that the company's offerings are compliant with the applicable regulations now and in the future. In context with cyber related regulation, the businesses are supported by the Cyber Security function.
Commodity price risk
The direct effect of oil price changes on Wärtsilä's production is limited, with their impact being mainly demand related. Higher oil prices represent a risk for global economic growth and increase operating costs, especially in the shipping markets. However, they also stimulate investments in exploration and production for oil and gas, both on land and offshore. Furthermore, high oil prices increase investments in gas carriers, gas-based power plants and, increasingly, also in gas-fuelled vessels. Low oil prices can delay investment decisions in oil producing countries and regions, as well as in the offshore industry. Wärtsilä is a global company involved in different shipping and power plant segments where oil price changes can have an opposing impact on demand drivers. This position is further diversified by the increasing importance of natural gas in Wärtsilä's business.
Metal prices have an indirect effect on the component costs of Wärtsilä’s products. Furthermore, some key components are sourced with long-term contracts, and thus raw material price volatility is limited.
Electricity prices have no substantial impact on Wärtsilä’s production costs. In the Energy Solutions business, high electricity prices support investments in new capacity by utility customers. Lower grid electricity prices do not favour investments in their own generating capacity by industrial customers.